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Rancid Polyunsaturated and Trans-fats are Bad

Links to journal articles are found at http://healthfully.org/dja/id5.html and at dja/id4

On the Bad Fats  http://healthfully.org/rh/id16.html   (6/13/16)

At http://healthfully.org/dja/id4.html  are some journal articles on rancid fats

AS        Atherosclerosis


N3         Omega 3 fatty acids   

CVD     Cardiovascular disease


N6         Omega 6 fatty acids   

HT        Hypertension


MeS      Metabolic syndrome[1][1]

IR         Insulin resistance


NALFD  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

KOL     Key opinion leader


T2D       Type 2 Diabetes

MI        Myocardial infarction


TC          Total Cholesterol


Polyunsaturated fats are subject to rancidification:  “It is the hydrolysis and/or autoxidation of fats into short-chain aldehydes and ketones which are objectionable in taste and odor.  Hydrolytic rancidity refers to the odor that develops when triglycerides are hydrolyzed and free fatty acids are released to form free tatty acids and salts of free fatty acids.  Oxidation primarily occurs with unsaturated fats. Microbial rancidity refers to a process in which microorganisms, such as bacteria or molds, use their enzymes such as lipases to break down fat.[2]  Rancidification can produce potentially toxic compounds associated with long-term harmful health effects concerning advanced aging, neurological disorders, heart disease, and cancer. A combination of water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants is ideal” Wiki.  A key source for oxidized fats comes from frying and deep frying.  The alarm was raised in work done at Rutgers University in 1978, where a team in a simulation of commercial frying where they tested commonly used polyunsaturated in simulated deep frying at 365 F for 74 hours.  One finding, for example was that “under such conditions [of commercial frying] both thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oil may take place.  Such unavoidable chemical reactions cause formation of both volatile and nonvolatile decomposition products…. Various symptoms of toxicity, including irritation of the digestive tract, organ enlargement, growth depression, and even death have been observed when highly abused (oxidized and heated) fats were fed to laboratory animals”… and the article goes on.  Lipid peroxidation refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids. It is the process in which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage.  It most often affects polyunsaturated fatty acids, because they contain multiple double bonds in between which lie methylene bridges (-CH2-) that possess especially reactive hydrogens.  If not terminated fast enough, there will be damage to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids. In addition, end-products of lipid peroxidation may be mutagenic and carcinogenic.  For instance, the end-product malondialdehyde  reacts with deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine in DNA, forming DNA adducts to them, primarily M1GWiki. 


The detailed 2010 article Pathological Aspects of Lipid Peroxidation list aging,  Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease), atherosclerosis (and thus CVD and other related conditions), pre-eclampsia (pregnancy disorder affecting about 4%), diabetes, renal diseases, chronic lymphedema (also known as lymphatic obstruction, causing swelling by compromised lymphatic system), hepatic diseases including liver IR, NAFLD, NASH (#16), exacerbating hepatitis C and cirrhosis of the liver, and a causal factor for cancers.  The various authors of each section of this in-depth article describe the process by which the lipid peroxidation causes pathology.  The role of oxidation of fats and cholesterol within the artery walls as being atherogenic is clearly made in that article.  The effects of rancidification in the body are beyond dispute.  Also contributing are dietary sources of rancid oils.  The possibility that the body fats might undergo a similar kind of degradation is still largely ignoredperhaps because the irregular irreversible pattern of this type of process seems at odds with the enzyme-controlled reversible pathways of traditional biochemistry. Yet work with mitochondria and other biological preparations has shown that the processes commonly grouped together as " degeneration ", " fatigue ", and " ageing " (none of which have a basis in classical enzymology) develop in close parallel with evidence of Rancidification” at 1969.  The source can either be dietary rancid fats or in vivo oxidation—in vivo causing the greatest issues.  Now let us follow the chain of events concerning IR and CVD.  Rancid fats contribute to liver dysfunction NAFLD and IR by accumulating in the liver in a form that the liver can’t dispose of.  Similarly they contribute to atherosclerosis and CVD by being in a form with the muscle cells in the tunica media (muscular layer) of the artery walls which prevent uptake for transport and metabolized.  The macrophages in the tunica media similarly can’t dispose of the rancid fats.  Thus like transfats (see section below) rancid fats contribute to CVD and atherosclerosis.  Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidized fats and lipid oxidation products in the diet can contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis” at 2002, and 1998. Non-enzymatic oxidation causes the failure of the body to dispose of them; they accumulate like those of the unnatural, man-made trans-fats.  Thus polyunsaturated fats are unhealthful because of rancidification and because of their high N-6 content.  Like other vegetable with low yield through expeller-press undergoes a complex process involving organic solvents, distillation to remove the non-oil fraction, treatment with alkali to neutralize free fatty acids, bleaching to remove modify color, and distillation at a temperature of 480 F and under a high vacuum.   Corn oil has 55% polyunsaturated fat, Cottonseed 52%, canola 28%,[3] soybean 58%.  Moreover as stated above rancidification in the body and the high amount of omega-6 makes this and all oils high in unsaturated fats a major health concern.  Corn oils ratio of n-6 to n-3 is 49:1.[4]  (See section on n-6 and n-3 above).  So what does our corporate friendly government do?

Commercial forces behind vegetable oil:  For example, corn oil is derived from the waste part, the germ, of corn in the production of corn meal used in animal feed and various grocery foods.  Being a waste byproduct of a commercially valuable product makes it is “generally less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils.  One bushel of corn contains 1.55 pounds of corn oil (2.8% by weight) [and a lot of animal feed].  Corn oil is also a feedstock used for biodiesel. Other industrial uses for corn oil include soapsalvepaintrustproofing for metal surfaces, inkstextiles, nitroglycerin, and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a carrier for drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations” Wiki.   Being cheap it is favored by the food manufacturers.  To promote manufactured food sales they have influenced government to subsidized crops, to recommend a low fat diet (thus high carbs), and to vilify saturated fats as artery clogging to promote their cheap polyunsaturated fats as heart healthy.  Over 95% of Federal-farm crop subsidies go to the production of grains.  The cheap subsidized grains have made it possible for the food manufacturers to sell their products abroad.  As developed in the article on diet, the global obesity & diabetes pandemics are founded upon sugar added manufactured foods combined with a diet high in grains (a one-two-punch)--see.  And it get worse since baked products which use a high ratio of polyunsaturated fats are clearly inferior in flavor, the food manufacturers hydrogenate them (a cheap process) to convert them to superior baking properties of saturated fats.  In this process about half of the polyunsaturated are converted to the equally unhealthy transfats—section below.  The transposition is lower energy, and thus favored, in catalytic hydrogenation.  Thus what is sold as heart healthy; isn’t; and what is artery clogging turns out to be healthy, viz., the best source for energy (ATP).   This is an example of what I call tobacco ethics and tobacco science:  corporations pursing the corporate imperative of maximizing profits. 


[2] This affect by bacteria is one of the causes for atherosclerosis.  Bacteria are found in the tunica media (muscle of artery walls) and are a major cause for CVD. Another example of pharma distorting the beliefs about CVD—for confirmation of infectious agent role.  Thus the toxins from bacteria damage both the LDL and its fatty acid content. 

[3] Don’t assume that canola is better, because like corn, soy, it has a GMO gene and thus makes its own pesticide and another making it Roundup read, meaning that the crop is probably dosed in that herbicide. 

[4]Some medical research suggests that excessive levels of omega-6 fatty acids, relative to omega-3 fatty acids, may increase the probability of a number of diseases and depression.[7][8][9] Modern Western diets typically have ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in excess of 10 to 1, some as high as 30 to 1, partly due to corn oil which has an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 49:1. The optimal ratio is thought to be 4 to 1 or lower”[10][11] Wiki.

Trans-fats:  The daily intake of about 5 g of trans fat is associated with a 25 percent increase in the risk of ischemic heart diseaseNEJM.  However, this study was based on the use of questionnaire given 667 elderly 3 times over 10 years—hardly proof, at.  “Trans-fats are found only in trace amounts in meat and dairy products.  Their major source is in food production: liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties[1] [and more flavorful baked and fried foods].  Trans-fats are a contaminant introduced by a side reaction on the catalyst in partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils.  However, partial hydrogenation reconfigures most of the double bonds that do not become chemically saturated, twisting them so that the hydrogen atoms end up on different sides of the chain. This type of configuration is called trans, from the Latin, meaning "across".[39] The trans configuration is the lower energy form, and is favored when catalytically equilibrated as a side reaction in hydrogenation” Wiki.  Another study found a 30% increase—2015 BMJ.  In 1975, 5.6 billion Ib. of hydrogenated vegetable oil were produced in the United States, which is an average of 28 Ib/year/person (113)” ARN, 1984. Based on population studies and clinical trials, trans-fats are blamed for high levels of cholesterol, lower the good HDL, and as a major cause of CVD.   But as pointed out in the section on the Mediterranean diet, complex population studies are like data mining, where you dig determines what you find, and sometimes proposed mechanism and population data is only poorly related to CVD.  However, animal study using Wistar rats found that transfats in a high fat diet causes fatty liver disease at 2011.   However, the study which found oxidation didn’t control for the effects of polyunsaturated fats which are subject to rancidification (see poly section below).  Another study found the same in transfats and high-fructose corn syrup—at 2008.  By promoting metabolic dysfunction, we have the mechanism, like that of T2D for transfats, and presumable polyunsaturated fats as to their method of causing CVD.


Is there laboratory evidence that trans-fats cause CVD?   Back to the cholesterol myth:  trans-fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of the lipoprotein LDL (so-called "bad cholesterol") and lowering levels of the lipoprotein HDL ("good cholesterol") “ Wiki.  “It is now well known that the hydrogenation process and particularly the formation of trans-fatty acids has led to increases in serum cholesterol concentrations whereas LA [linoleic acid] in its regular state in oil is associated with a reduced serum cholesterol concentration” Biomed.  This has been confirmed with high trans-fat in clinical experiment on volunteers.  But it has been shown (see part 2) that pharma pushes the high LDL, high TC, and high-fat diet as causes of CVD for to promote drug sales; they are not causal factors, rather it promotes sales of statins.  The cause of CVD from a 2006 review article on trans-fats besides changes in LDL and HDL:  “Because of their effects on the metabolism of gamma-linoleic and arachidonic acid, ingestion of trans-fatty acids can affect the metabolism of prostaglandin and other eicosanoids and may alter platelet aggregation and vascular function [negative effect upon inflammation (causal of AS) and clotting functions (causal of MI)].  In addition incorporation of trans-isomers into membrane phosopholipids may influence the physical properties of the membrane as well as the activities of the membrane-associated enzymes …. Effect collagen induce platelet aggregation.…  inhibit activities of Na+ , K+-ATPase and adenylate cyclase and reduce density of B-adrenergic receptors in rat heart membranes [raise blood pressure]…. Recent evidence indicates that trans-fats promote inflammation…. Increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) system, levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein…. Several studies suggest that trans-fats cause endothelial dysfunction [affects wall of arteries and other tissues]… soluble vascular-cell adhesion factor…reflected by reduction in brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation by 29 percent [raises blood pressure], as compared with intake of saturated-fats.  Other effects include consumption of trans-fats reduced the activity of serum paroxonase, an enzyme that is closely associated with HDL cholesterol, and impaired the postprandial activity of tissue plasminogen activator.  Trans-fats appear to affect lipid metabolism through several pathways….”  The same finding with much greater detail is in the 1984 thorough review by the Department of Agriculture.  Several epidemiological studies found a significant association of trans-fats with CDV and MI, including those studies which controlled for contravening variables.[2]  As previously stated LDL and high TC are again bystanders, and trans-fats affects some of the same processes as omega 6.  Given the clear association in dozens of population studies and clinical trials of trans-fats to CVD, governments have responded to this health hazard created by the food industry.  With the body of experimentation upon rats a mechanism for the deleterious effects of trans-fats has been established, the principle one being it effect upon blocking the conversion of the essential omega-3 fatty acid, at.  The smoking gun lines with the fact that trans-fats exert a pro-inflammatory effect, and the inflammatory processes in artery walls in response to damaged LDL causes atherogenesis.  “Because the presence of inflammation is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis… the production of interleukin-6 and TNF-a by cultured mononuclear cells was grater after one month…” NEJMsee also, a 2006 summary article.   Laboratory experiments on rats are revealing.  Strong association with NAFLD, obesity, and MeS are associated in rats with a diet high in trans-fat.  By 16 weeks, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necro-inflammatory changes… severe hepatic steatosis… glucose intolerance developed within 2 and 4 weeks… plasma insulin resistance…  Because dietary transfats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluationat 2008, and like findings 2011. This is an extremely important health finding, the causal change to obesity risk and MeS and T2D starts with accumulation of fat within the liver, which mucks up the liver’s metabolic regulatory function.  Now in addition to fructose with a high starch diet, we can add unhealthful trans and polyunsaturated fats.  The omega-6, transfats are pro-inflammatory because of the inhibition of on EFA metabolism, 1984.  This effect on n-6 is associated with heart disease in rats on trans-fats--1997 .  It thus based on lab and population studies to assiduously avoid artificially produced trans-fats[3].   The zero trans fats on food label is deceptive for 2 reasons, at 0.5 grams the entry is 0, and since no one is checking food content, there is an incentive to manufacture numbers on product labels.  

Journal summation on trans fatty acids and oxidized polyunsaturated:   The Harvard Heart Letter put out a warning about a dietary causes of CVD, fructose, at http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/abundance-of-fructose-not-good-for-the-liver-heart.  In the Nutrition and Metabolism Journal 2011 is pasted the evidence in support of the warning about polyunsaturated fats:  Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms that might mediate association of TFAs with CVD [12].  For example TFAs influence prostaglandins balance, which in turn promotes thrombogenesis [13] and inhibit the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid and to other n-6 PUFA, perturbing essential fatty acid metabolism and causing changes in the phospholipid fatty acid composition in the aorta [14].  TFAs have been associated with the activation of systemic inflammatory responses, including substantially increased levels of IL-6, and TNF-alpha, TNF receptors and monocytes chemo-attract protein-1 [15]. Furthermore, TFAs have been associated with increased levels of several markers of endothelial activation, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin [10].  TFAs are postulated to be involved in promoting vascular dysfunction, as reflected by a reduction in brachial artery flow [16].  These observations suggest that TFAs are linked to development of CVD, probably via a vascular pro-inflammatory response [17].  Oxidative damage is a major contributor to the development of CVD.  Nevertheless, little is known about the effects on the liver induced lipids [6] and few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress.  Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between oxidant production and antioxidant defenses [18].  Oxidative stress induced by free radicals has been linked to the development of several diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases [19].   When cellular antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed, a long-term decline in their antioxidant capacity causes oxidative stress [20, 21].  Oxidative stress is now believed to be an important factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [20, 22].  NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in the world, and in obesity, type-2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases, it incidence reaches 70-90% [23].   The disease is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols inside liver cells, and the condition can progress into more serious liver disease, such as non alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and more rarely, liver carcinoma [23]. Previous works have shown that feeding rats a high fat diet (57% of energy from fat) induces hepatic steatosis and liver damage, which are characteristic of NAFLD and thus provides a suitable model for the early stages of the disease[24,25]. But, in these studies TFAs in the fat diet were not investigated and neglected. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the relationship between the liver functions and TFAs consumption in dietary lipids….” Both articles are posted at http://healthfully.org/dja/id5.html


What are the regulations:  Official response has been prohibiting trans-fats in a number of countries, but not the U.S.  According to the FDA, the average American consumes 5.8 grams of trans-fat per day (2.6% of energy intake).  This is government figure is low because trans fatty acids that are part of mono- and diglycerides [bound with glycerol] are not required to be listed on the ingredients label as making contributions to calorie count or trans fatty acid content.  Trans-fats in the form of monoglycerides and diglycerides are not considered fats by the FDA, though upon absorption from digestive track they yield trans-fats.  Another gap in calculation is that trans-fat levels of less than 0.5 grams per serving are listed as 0 grams trans-fat on the food label.  There is no requirement to list trans-fats on institutional food packaging; thus bulk purchasers such as schools, hospitals, [restaurants]  and cafeterias are unable to evaluate the trans-fat content of commercial food items [nor is there an incentive to spend more for trans-free foods]” Wiki.  The major source of trans-fats in the U.S. is in fried foods from restaurants, and this source is not included in US dietary figures for trans-fats.   A number of countries have simplified the process of controlling trans-fatty acids by banning them, starting with Denmark in 2003 and now also Iceland, Sweden, Switzerland .  “Spain … no significant levels of trans-fats were found in any of the anaylsed products, regardless of brand of origin” at Bakery.  The regulations might make a difference, because death rate per 100,000 2011 from coronary heart disease is 80.5 US, 55.9 for Denmark, for Spain 43, Switzerland 52 ,Japan 31, Israel 46, Italy 51, Greece 60, U.K. 69, and France 29, source LeDuc Media.  However, the highest rate of obesity and diabetes is in the US, and the US allows GMOs.  Let us not become distracted by what could by the minor causes such as fats when the elephant in the kitchen  are refined carbs and sugars.  The weakness of  lab work on fats make the case,[4] we need to look at the Western high carb diet.          

The Western diet:  Avoid the western diet and avoid fructose, trans-fats, and high ratio of n-6 to n-3 and fats subject to rancidification (main source vegetable oil), but not starches, saturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats low in n-6.  Note, since the process of AS is initiated by NAFLD mucking upon metabolic regulations which starts with the combination of high fructose and high insulin caused by carbs, avoid the Western diet.  Thus instead of high fat diet and high levels of cholesterol being the chief villains in the life ending CVD, it is the Western diet with large amount of fructose, sucrose, refined carbs,[5] tobacco smoke, and polyunsaturated and transfats that has caused most of the spike in CVD and varied health problems facing the elderly, especially those involving oxidative damage and immune responses   (arthritis, Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s diseases, macular degeneration, CVD, and insulin resistant diabetes).  Place sugars as first, refined carbs second, and vegetable oils third on the dietary avoid list—the carbs connection see part 4.   


Why the Mediterranean diet works: “The recently published PREDIMED randomised controlled trial was stopped early after it showed that in high risk people the Mediterranean diet achieved a 30% improvement over a “low fat” diet in terms of cardiovascular events”  BMJ.   There is major variation between regions of the Mediterranean.  Wikipedia concludes:  The all-embracing term 'Mediterranean diet' should not be used in scientific literature.”  Among errors:  “olive oil consumption is negligible… Mediterranean countries tend to consume relatively high amounts of fat, they have far lower rates of cardiovascular disease than in countries like the United States, where similar levels of fat consumption are found…The most popular dietary candidate, olive oil, has been undermined by a body of experimental evidence that diets enriched in monounsaturated fats such as olive oil are not athero-protective when compared to diets enriched in either polyunsaturated or even saturated fats.  A healthy active lifestyle (notable a physically active lifestyle or larbour) is also beneficial… red wine … contains flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties… The proposed mechanism is solar UVB-induced synthesis [sun] of Vitamin D in the oils of the skin, which has been observed to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, and which rapidly diminishes with increasing latitude….  A recent randomized Spanish trial of diet pattern published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2013 followed almost 7,500 individuals over around 5 years found that individuals on a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts and olive oil had a 30 percent reduction in risk of having a major cardiovascular event and a 49 percent decrease in stroke risk.  A 10-year study found that adherence to a Mediterranean diet and healthful lifestyle was associated with more than a 50% lowering of early death ratesWiki.   Undoubted influenced by pharma’s thought leaders, the Wikipedia article basically a survey, a kitchen sink without clear guidance & no mention of sucrose, fructose, refined carbs, or glycation.  However the research in this series on CVD place as beneficial low use of sucrose first, refined carbs second, followed by saturated fats and monounsaturated fats, then physical active life style and the lower use of pharma’s patented drugs as why those on a Mediterranean diet live longer.  Moreover the first study of this diet started in the 50’s based upon Italians who ate a peasant diet. [6] Other factors include lower rate of obesity, popularity of red wine (its anti-oxidants), effective regulation of trans-fats (unlike the US), and higher intake of diary product with its vitamin D and sunlight (this combination of calcium, vitamin D, and sun light is cardio-protective).  Wikipedia’s article on the Mediterranean diet repeats the tobacco science of the food and pharmaceutical industries.    Human evolved a biological system for the hunter-gatherer life, not the modern diet. 


Commercial Production of Vegetable oils:  for those who are into natural, unmodified, the extraction of oils raises serious health concerns, made all the more alarming by the FDA’s reliance upon the manufacturers’ testing as proof of healthfulness. The main vegetable products used contain under 3% oil, the byproduct is mainly used for animal feed.   A description of the production of corn oil:  Almost all corn oil is expeller-pressed, then solvent-extracted using hexane or 2-methylpentane (isohexane).[1] The solvent is evaporated from the corn oil, recovered, and re-used. After extraction, the corn oil is then refined by degumming and/or alkali treatment, both of which remove phosphatides. Alkali treatment also neutralizes free fatty acids and removes color (bleaching). Final steps in refining include winterization (the removal of waxes), and deodorization by steam distillation of the oil at 232–260 ░C (450–500 ░F) under a high vacuum.[1]  Canola/rapeseed oil:  “Canola oil is made at a processing facility by slightly heating and then crushing the seed. Almost all commercial canola oil is then refined using hexane. Finally, the Canola oil is refined using water precipitation and acid, "bleaching" with clay, and deodorizing using steam distillation.[22] About 43% of a seed is oil;[23] the remainder is a rapeseed meal that is used as animal feed. About 23 kg (51 lb) of rapeseed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Seed oils except for corn are high in oil content:  sunflower seed (28%), soybean dry (56%), and canola dry (43%), corn (2.8%).  These oils are high in polyunsaturated oils:  sunflower 69%, soybean 58%, canola 28%, corn 55%.  Because of in vivo rancidification of polyunsaturated fats as well as in cooking, they pose a serious health risk—see rancidification section above for the consequences.   Claims of dietary safety are suspect since nearly all studies are industry funded, and the few government reports are undoubted influenced by industry. 


1871 census UK and longevity:  More evidence of the consequences of the western diet:  the 1871 census in the UK (the first of its kind) found the average male life expectancy as being 44, but if childhood mortality is subtracted, “males who lived to adulthood averaged 75 years.   The present male life expectancy in the UK is 77 years for males [the United States averages 74 for males]” Wiki.  In spite of the improved medical procedures[7] for cancer, heart attacks, strokes, vaccinations preventing contagious diseases, and antibiotic to treat infections,[8] and also a safer work environment, these benefits have been undone as to life extension by CVD, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, for which Western diet and lifestyle are the major causes, a diet high in refined carbs (especially the sugar fructose) and unhealthful trans and polyunsaturated oils, pesticides, and chemical additives.  Something is very wrong when business trumps science.   

Fats, what’s good; what’ s bad:  Omega-3 fatty acids (N-3) EPA and DHA are converted in the body to essential products that modify inflammatory and immune reactions and thus N-3 lowers the risk of autoimmune diseases including Alzheimer’s, arthritis, and CVD.    Omega-6 fatty acids (N-6) have an inflammatory effect and also block the conversion of N-3 and thereby increase autoimmune diseases including AS and CVD.  The ideal ratio of N-6 to N-3 is 4:1 or less; the western-diet ratio is 16:1.  Main source for N-6 are vegetable oils and nuts.  Canola oil[9] is the only major vegetable oil with a good ratio of N-6 to N-3 (2.5:1), although the main omega-3 is the form of alpha-linolenic acid of which only about 10% is converted to the healthful EPA and DHA.  Because Canola oil is from GMO canola, I must withhold recommending it;[10] most other vegetable oils are from GMO crops.  Main source for EPA and DHA is fish oil supplement and fish. For vegetable oils to avoid N-6, the best are coconut, palm, and olive oils and they are free of GMO.  However, I must withhold recommending olive oil; its N-6 to N-3 ratio is 14:1.  Another issue for vegetable oils is that of rancidification which makes them comparable to that of transfats.  Our body’s lack enzymes for their metabolism, and thus in sufficient amounts they accumulate in our cells and causals for an assortment of conditions including CVD and NAFLD.  Moreover most vegetable oils come from GMO seeds which are not only Roundup read but also have a GMO pesticide that causes leaky gut.  Because leaky gut kills insects, there is a major human risk.[11]  The switch to grain fed poultry and cattle from free range has lowered the amount of N-3 in those meat sources.   In manufactured foods and restaurants trans-fats are a concern.  They are a result of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils.  While banned in many developed countries, U.S. regulations require only listing trans-fat content on label.  However, there are several exclusions in the regulations, and those labels are based on the corporate honor system without government oversight.  Secondly, restaurant and institutions are excluded from regulations, thus their baked and fried foods are another major source. Trans and saturated fats enhance the flavor of baked goods and fried foods.  Trans-fats promote CVD and other autoimmune diseases.  The palm nut[12] are high in saturated fats including the beneficial lauric acid and thus are recommended along with animal sources of saturated fats, and also monounsaturated fats.  After them comes olive oil with its low level of polyunsaturated fats.  Thus as a policy, limit vegetable oils, commercial backed goods, and restaurant baked deserts and fried foods.  Animal fats because of the GMO plant pesticide and Roundup issues, I thus withhold recommending lard.[13]  Substitute saturated fats such as butter and vegetable oil from palm tree nuts, eat more seafood, and take omega-3 supplement. “If insulin is elevated there is a net inward flux of FFA [free fatty acids], and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming carbohydrates” Wiki.  Thus a low carbohydrate diet with saturated fats replacing them and sea foods is recommended for weight control and lowering CVD risk.  A more complete accounting of what constitutes are good diet is found at Diet recommendations and its science which is a short non-technical summation followed by diet

[1] Desirable properties of not being subject to oxidation (they lack a double bond unsaturated fats), which improves flavor, and they “melt at a desirable temperature (30-40 C)” Wiki.  Removing trans-fats following hydrogenation of vegetable oil adds to its cost.  Thus for flavor, shelf-life, and price hydrogenated vegetable oils are commercially valued.  

[2] A well designed study in Boston looked at the dietary intake of 239 hospital patients with their first MI were matched to 282 control subjects.  A questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake of trans-fats, and adjustments were made for contravening variable.  “Relative risk for the highest quintile, 2.44.”  Trans-fats constituted 1.6% of daily energy intake.  The highest quintiles consumed twice the daily intake of the lowest.   “The association could not be explained by other established risk factors.”

[3] Trans-isomers of fatty acids constitute about 5% to 6% of dietary fat in the average US diet, mostly derived from partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils…. Typical margarines  in the US market range from 10% to 30% of total fat… more than 10% of total fat are also frequent in cookies, crackers, breads, pastries, and French-fried potatoes” at AHA.

[4] There are just two studies using a Google Scholar search of the literature.  One population wing of the Nurses’ Health Study found a clear association after controlling for confounding variables of transfats with CHD (coronary heart disease).  The other was trial using rats of 4 cohorts (6 in each):  trans-fat + HFCS, lard + HFCS, trans-fat, and control (without forced sedentary lifestyle).  The combo of HFCS and trans-fat had had the greatest weight gain, and liver weight gain, but there was no indication as the CHD (possible by deliberate omission).  Liver damage is not a proven surrogate for CHD.  The lack of an animal study is telling.      

[5] True dietary fat raises LDL, but it’s the large buoyant kind.  The small desne variation is raised by carbohydrates.

[6]   The village of Pioppi and surrounding area (south of Naples) the source for data on the Mediterranean diet in the 50s. at. 

[7] Joseph Lister sterile procedures were first applied on a limited scale in 1869 during operations and treating wounds, and not widely for at least a decade.   Moreover, there weren’t antibiotics.  Most contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, syphilis and cholera lacked effective treatments, and there were only a few prevented by inoculation. 

[8] Don’t assume that we have a large arsenal of wonder drugs. After carefully examining the evidence on most of the drug treatments such as for arrhythmia, hypercholesterolemia, dementia, hypertension, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, COPD, and psychological conditions,  I have come to agree with a French book by two noted doctors, that over half are not worth their side effects, and in particular for those conditions just named. What we and are physicians are fed is pure marketing and thus always distorted. With pharma’s regulatory capture and the control of medical education through KOLs, we have revisited the past, before the golden age of medicine.  I have dedicated this website and my retirement years to investigating and publishing the best evidence based conclusions on bad pharma and bad diet.  What we get is a product of the corporate imperative to maximize profits.  To give the process an historical connotation I call it “tobacco science” and “tobacco ethics”.   On the positive  side I have investigated some of the drugs which such as sex hormones and aspirin, which pharma warns us about as dangerous, though once they demonstrated as healthful.  Similarly I have looked into diet, and again found more tobacco ethics.     

[9] “Canola oil is produced from the seed of any of several varieties of rape plant namely a cultivar of either rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) or field mustard/turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, syn. Brassica campestris L.).  Consumption of the oil is common and does not cause harm in humans and livestock.  Canola was bred naturally from rapeseed at the University of ManitobaCanada… in the early 1970s.  The "Can" part stands for Canada and "ola" refers to oil. The breed rapeseed at University of Manitoba had a very different nutritional profile in addition to much less erucic acid.  Annual Canadian exports total 3 to 4 million tonnes of the seed, 800,000 tonnes of canola oil, and 1 million tonnes of canola meal. Within the United States, 90% of the canola crop is grown in North Dakota.  The rapeseed blossom is a major source of nectar for honeybees.  In the 2010–2011 season, world production of canola oil is estimated to be at 58.4 million tonnes.  Approximately 43% of a seed is oil.[24] What remains is a rapeseed meal that is used as high quality animal feed.  22.68 kg (50 lb) of rapeseed makes approximately 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world, and overall it is the third most widely consumed vegetable oil in the world” Wiki.

[10]genetically engineered rapeseed that is tolerant to herbicide was first introduced to Canada in 1995 (see Roundup Ready Canola). In 2009, 90% of the Canadian crop was herbicide-tolerant.  As of 2005, 87% of the canola grown in the US was genetically modified” Wiki. “To produce the Roundup Ready canola, two genes were introduced into the canola genome. One is a gene derived from the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium strain CP4, that encodes for the EPSPS enzyme.  The other is a gene from the Ochrobactrum anthropi strain LBAA, which encodes for the enzyme glyphosate oxidase(GOX)” Wiki.    The government safety regulatory process is a total fašade, and studies on safety are influenced by Monsanto—Genetic Roulette.

[11] How much the risk is difficult to solve, because industry funds most of the studies.  I have yet to view the literature, but the movie Genetic Roulette sounds a very believable warning.

[12] Coconut oil and palm kernel oil is about 85% saturated fats while palm oil is only 48% saturated fats. 

[13] As for butter, the bovine hormone should not be an issue for humans since it must be injected; viz., it is not orally active.  It is the corn feed, and possible other grains which have a plant produced pesticide that is the issue. I also suspect that using GMO grains in feed would not affect the organic rating of meat products, for the certification system is broken, for it is done by corporations without meaningful government oversight.    

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